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          蒙田隨筆——從其它角度看世界

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          Montaigne's "Essays" -- Body and soul

          蒙田的《隨筆》——肉體與靈魂

          A French philosopher offers a lesson in seeing other points of view

          一位法國哲學家為我們上了一課,讓我們看到不同的觀點

          Like many people, as he grew older Michel de Montaigne paid close attention to the workings of his body.

          像許多人一樣,隨著年紀增長,米歇爾·德·蒙田密切關注起自己身體的運轉。

          He began to feel the cold in his bones; his servants brought him clothes at night "to warm my feet and stomach".

          他開始感覺到骨子里的寒冷;他的仆人們晚上給他送來衣服,“讓我的腳和胃暖和起來”。

          He liked to sleep for eight or nine hours, he tells his readers, and avoided "violent activities" that "bring on sweat".

          他告訴讀者,他喜歡睡八九個小時,并且不做“讓人出汗”的“劇烈活動”。

          He could not eat even two meals a day without vomiting -- but if he skipped one, flatulence and a dry mouth ensued.

          他甚至做不到一天吃兩餐不嘔吐——但如果他少吃一頓,脹氣和口干就來了。

          These are not the typical musings of a renowned thinker, but Montaigne's "Essays" are not typical works of philosophy.

          這些都不是典型的思想家的沉思,不過蒙田的《隨筆》也不是典型的哲學著作。

          In 1570, after sitting in Bordeaux's parliament for 15 years, Montaigne retired to his chateau.

          1570年,在波爾多議會任職15年后,蒙田回到了自己的莊園。

          This self-imposed solitude proved productive.

          這種自我強加的孤獨被證明是富有成效的。

          He published two volumes of the "Essays" in 1580 and a third in 1588.

          他在1580年出版了兩卷《隨筆》,并于1588年出版了第三卷。

          In their pages he explores topics ranging from friendship to architecture to child-rearing.

          在這些書中,他探討了廣泛的話題,從友誼到建筑再到養兒育女。

          His prose weaves together history, personal experience and arguments from his favourite philosophers; anecdotes about his napping schedule are juxtaposed with maxims.

          他的散文將歷史、個人經歷和他最喜歡的哲學家的觀點編織在一起;關于他午睡時間表的軼事與格言并列闡述。

          It was Montaigne who popularised the essay genre.

          是蒙田使散文體裁流行起來。

          The name derives from the French verb essayer, "to try", and Montaigne viewed his chapters as attempts to understand a topic.

          散文這個名字來源于法語動詞essayer,即“嘗試”,蒙田認為他的文章是在嘗試理解一個主題。

          In "Of Drunkenness", for instance, he examines philosophers' views on booze (Socrates and Cato both enjoyed a tipple).

          例如,在《論飲酒》一章中,他考察了哲學家們對酒的看法(蘇格拉底和卡托都喜歡喝烈酒)。

          German drinking habits of the 16th century are mentioned several times, as are the author's own tastes.

          書中多次提到16世紀德國人的飲酒習慣,以及作者自己的口味。

          But he never rules on whether drunkenness is right or wrong.

          但他從不對飲酒是對是錯下定論。

          Rather, he lays out a range of opinions and lets the reader decide.

          相反,他列出一系列的觀點,讓讀者自己決定。

          Montaigne strove to see the world from other perspectives.

          蒙田努力從其他角度看世界。

          In one chapter he recounts various South American customs, such as an unfamiliar drink ("it tastes a bit sharp") and faith in soothsayers.

          在其中一章,他講述了南美的各種習俗,比如一種不常見的飲料(“它嘗起來有點烈”)和對占卜者的信仰。

          He knew his European readers would find these habits puzzling, so, by way of balance, he delves into the "strangeness" of French society.

          他知道他的歐洲讀者會覺得這些習慣令人費解,所以,為了平衡,他深入挖掘了法國社會的“奇怪現象”。

          He recalls a meeting with some South American tribesmen who, on visiting Rouen in the 1560s, asked why, in Charles IX, the French had a king who was ten years old.

          他回憶起在16世紀60年代訪問魯昂時,他曾與一些南美部落的人會面,他們問為什么法國有一個10歲的國王查理九世。

          The writer admits that his "Essays" are a personal undertaking rather than an authoritative, objective study.

          這位作者承認他的《隨筆》是個人事業,而不是權威的、客觀的研究。

          "Reader," he confides, "I myself am the subject of my book."

          “讀者,”他坦言,“我自己就是我這本書的主題?!?/p>

          The immediate context included the Wars of Religion that had engulfed France.

          當時的背景包括席卷法國的宗教戰爭。

          Conflict between Protestants and Catholics ravaged Bordeaux -- the philosopher's siblings were on opposing sides -- yet he resisted polarisation.

          新教徒和天主教徒之間的沖突摧毀了波爾多——這位哲學家的兄弟姐妹站在相互對立的兩邊——但他拒絕兩極化。

          For his time, Montaigne's determination to consider other viewpoints was unusual.

          蒙田探討其他觀點的決心在他那個時代是不同尋常的。

          It still is.

          至今仍然是。

          The "Essays" document a changeable mind as well as a changing body.

          《隨筆》記錄了一個多變的心靈和一個多變的身體。

          After the first editions were published, Montaigne edited them extensively, often adding entire paragraphs -- which sometimes completely contradicted his original points.

          第一版出版后,蒙田對其進行了大量的編輯修改,經常添加整個段落——內容有時與他最初的觀點完全相反。

          He read more books of philosophy, his opinions evolving with each.

          他讀了更多的哲學書籍,他的觀點也跟隨他所讀的每本書逐漸發展。

          He contemplated his own mortality, which reshaped his outlook too.

          他思考了自己的死亡,這也重塑了他的人生觀。

          The "Essays" are the product of a questing intellect, which rejected dogma in favour of something more nuanced and original.

          《隨筆》是探索智慧的產物,它摒棄了教條,轉而書寫那些更加微妙獨到的東西。

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          重點單詞   查看全部解釋    
          understand [.ʌndə'stænd]

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          vt. 理解,懂,聽說,獲悉,將 ... 理解為,認為<

           
          mortality [mɔ:'tæliti]

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          n. 必死的命運,死亡數目,死亡率

          聯想記憶
          document ['dɔkjumənt]

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          n. 文件,公文,文檔
          vt. 記載,(用文件

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          range [reindʒ]

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          n. 范圍,行列,射程,山脈,一系列
          v. 排

           
          determination [di.tə:mi'neiʃən]

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          n. (正式)決定,規定,決心,測定,定位

          聯想記憶
          opposing [ə'pəuziŋ]

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          adj. 反作用的,反向的,相反的,對立的 動詞oppo

           
          unfamiliar ['ʌnfə'miljə]

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          adj. 不熟悉的

           
          violent ['vaiələnt]

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          adj. 暴力的,猛烈的,極端的

           
          original [ə'ridʒənl]

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          adj. 最初的,原始的,有獨創性的,原版的

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          puzzling ['pʌzliŋ]

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          adj. 令人迷惑的,茫然不知所措的,莫名其妙的

           
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